Akkermansia muciniphila

Akkermansia muciniphila

Akkermansia muciniphila

Clostridium butyricum

Akkermansia muciniphila

Aspergillus oryzae

Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS)

Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS)

Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS)

Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS) are prebiotic fibers found in natural sources, however in insufficient concentration for all prebiotic effects [1][2]. NATVIE Healthcare uses Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS) in its products, produced by enzymatic biosynthesis of lactose from cow milk, allowing a maximum concentration of at least 90%.

GOS are carbohydrates which are classified as non-digestible oligosaccharide (NDO) [3]. NDOs constitute one of the most important ingredients in foods, providing not only important nutritional value and organoleptic quality but also functional properties beneficial to human health and well-being [4].

GOS are not digested by human enzymes but fermented by the probiotics of the large intestine, selectively supporting the growth mostly of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium [26]. Additional positive effects are increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Akkermansia muciniphila and Roseburia intestinalis [20]. Another positive effects are inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacteroides species and Clostridium species, and also yeast pathogens of the genus Candida [20][27][28][29][32]. Fermentation of GOS results in multiple groups of metabolites (of which short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the major group), and mostly increased propionate and butyrate production [6]. SCFAs play a crucial role in human health [7].

GOS BENEFITS:

Modulation of gastrointestinal microbiota, stimulation of probiotic growth [9][20][26]
Decreased intestinal pH [9]
Increase levels of SCFAs [6][9]
Inhibition of pathogens in the intestinal flora [10][13][20][27][28][31]
Improving lipid profiles, including the reduction in serum/plasma total cholesterol,
LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, increment HDL cholesterol. Reduces markers of metabolic syndrome [34][35]
Improved mineral and vitamin absorption [10][31]
Prevention of intestinal infection and extra intestinal infections [30]
Regulate the intestinal immune system and reinforce the intestinal barrier, positive effect on immune respons [26][29][31]
Prevent colorectal cancer [31][36]
Modulate bowel function [33]
Effects in a intestinal disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) [36]
Prevention of obesity [36]

References:

[1] Health Effects and Sources of Prebiotic Dietary Fiber; Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2018 doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy005
[2] Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications; Foods 2019, 8(3), 92; Probiotics and Functional Foods doi.org/10.3390/foods8030092
[3] Neuroprotective Potential of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: An Overview of Experimental Evidence, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 23 August 2021 doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.712531
[4] Food Oligosaccharides. Production, Analysis and Bioactivity by F. Javier Moreno and María Luz Sanz, Preface; May 2014
[6] Fermentation of prebiotics by human colonic microbiota in vitro and short-chain fatty acids production: a critical review by T.J. Ashaolu, J.O. Ashaolu, S.A.O. Adeyeye; Journal of Applied Mycrobiology, Volume130, Issue3, March 2021, Pages 677-687 doi.org/10.1111/jam.14843
[7] Short-chain fatty acids activate acetyltransferase p300; eLife 2021;10:e72171 doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72171
[9] Saad N, Delattre C, Urdaci M, Schmitter J M, Bressollier P. An overview of the last advances in probiotic and prebiotic field. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 2013;50:1-16. doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.05.014
[10] Charalampopoulos D, Rastall R A. Prebiotics in foods. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2012;23:187-191. doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2011.12.028
[13] Bruzzese, E, Volpicelli, M, Squeglia, V, Bruzzese, D, Salvini, F, Bisceglia, M, Lionetti,P, Cinquetti, M, Iacono, G, Amarri, S, Guarino, A. A formula containing galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents intestinal and extra-intestinal infections: An observational study. Clinical Nutrition. 2009;28:156-161. doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2009.01.008
[20] Functional Oligosaccharides: Chemicals Structure, Manufacturing, Health Benefits, Applications and Regulations by Osama O. Ibrahim; Functional Oligosaccharides: Chemicals Structure, Manufacturing, Health Benefits, Applications and Regulations; Journal of Food Chemistry & Nanotechnology
doi.org/10.17756/jfcn.2018-060
[26] Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics by Glenn R. Gibson, Hollie M. Probert, Jan Van Loo, Robert A. Rastall and Marcel B. Roberfroid; Nutrition Research Reviews (2004), 17, 259–275 doi.org/10.1079/NRR200479
[27] Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics by Glenn R. Gibson, Hollie M. Probert, Jan Van Loo, Robert A. Rastall and Marcel B. Roberfroid; Food Microbial Sciences Unit, School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, Reading, UK doi.org/10.1079/NRR200479
[28] High purity galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) enhance specific Bifidobacterium species and their metabolic activity in the mouse gut microbiome by A. Monteagudo-Mera, J.C. Arthur, C. Jobin, T. Keku, J.M. Bruno-Barcena and M.A Azcarate-Peril; Benef Microbes. 2016; 7(2): 247–264. Published online 2016 Feb 3.  doi.org/10.3920/BM2015.0114
[29] Galactooligosaccharides: Novel Components of Designer Foods by
Vikas Sangwan, S.K. Tomar, R.R.B. Singh, A.K. Singh, Babar Ali; Journal of Food Science Volume 76,  Issue 4, Pages: viii-vii, R103-T124 May 2011 doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02131.x
[30] A formula containing galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents intestinal and extra-intestinal infections: An observational study by Eugenia Bruzzese, Monica Volpicelli, Veronica Squeglia, Dario Bruzzese, Filippo Salvini, Massimo Bisceglia, Paolo Lionetti, Mario Cinquetti, Giuseppe Iacono, Sergio Amarri h, Alfredo Guarinoa; Clinical Nutrition 28 (2009), Pages 156–161 doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2009.01.008
[31] Prebiotic–Probiotic Relationship: The Genetic Fundamentals of Polysaccharides Conversion by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Genera byPenka Petrova and Kaloyan Petrov; Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria; Food Bioconversion, Chapter 7 (pp.237-278), July 2017 doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811413-1.00007-3
[32] Sangwan, V, Tomar, S K, Ali, B, Singh, R R B, Singh, A K. Galactooligosaccharides reduce infection caused by Listeria monocytogenes and modulate IgG and IgA levels in mice. International Dairy Journal. 2015;41:58-63. doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2014.09.010
[33] Galacto-oligosaccharides and bowel function by Leena Niittynen, Kajsa Kajander and  Riitta Korpela; Scand J Food Nutr. 2007 Jun; 51(2): 62–66. doi.org/10.1080/17482970701414596
[34] Effect of Prebiotic Galacto-Oligosaccharides on Serum Lipid
Profile of Hypercholesterolemics by Arooj Hashmi, Naureen Naeem, Zubair Farooq, Saima Masood, Sanaullah Iqbal, Rahat Naseer; Published in Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins March 2016, 8:19–30 doi.org/10.1007/s12602-016-9206-1
[35] A Mixture of trans-Galactooligosaccharides Reduces Markers of Metabolic Syndrome and Modulates the Fecal Microbiota and Immune Function of Overweight Adults by Jelena Vulevic,  Aleksandra Juric,  George Tzortzis,  Glenn R. Gibson Author Notes; The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 143, Issue 3, March 2013, Pages 324–331, doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.166132
[36] Healthy effects of prebiotics and their metabolites against intestinal diseases and colorectal cancer by Javier Fernández, Sául Redondo-Blanco, Elisa M. Miguélez, Claudio J. Villar, Alfonso Clemente, and Felipe Lombó; AIMS Microbiology, 1(1): 48-71. doi.org/10.3934/microbiol.2015.1.48
[37] Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications by Dorna Davani-Davari, Manica Negahdaripour, Iman Karimzadeh, Mostafa Seifan, Milad Mohkam, Seyed Jalil Masoumi, Aydin Berenjian and Younes Ghasemi. Foods 2019, 8, 92; doi.org/10.3390/foods8030092

NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT USING THIS HERB

Galacto-Oligosaccharides (GOS)

Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS)

Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS)

Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS) are prebiotic fibers found in natural sources, however in insufficient concentration for all prebiotic effects [1][2]. NATVIE Healthcare uses Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS) in its products, produced by enzymatic biosynthesis of xylan from cornc ob, allowing a maximum concentration of at least 95%.

XOS are carbohydrates which are classified as non-digestible oligosaccharide (NDO) [3]. NDOs constitute one of the most important ingredients in foods, providing not only important nutritional value and organoleptic quality but also functional properties beneficial to human health and well-being [4].

XOS are not digested by human enzymes but fermented by the probiotics of the large intestine, selectively supporting the growth mostly of Lactobacillus и Bifidobacterium [5][37][38]. Additional positive effects are increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia muciniphila, and also decreasing pathogenic Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Bacteroides, Campylobacter и Actinomyces [38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. Fermentation of XOS results in multiple groups of metabolites (of which short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the major group), and mostly increased acetate, butyrate and propionate production [48]. SCFAs play a crucial role in human health [7].

IMO BENEFITS:

Modulation of gastrointestinal microbiota, stimulation of probiotic growth [8][38]

Decreased intestinal pH [9][38]

Increase levels of SCFAs [9]

Inhibition of pathogens in the intestinal flora [10] [11] [12] [13][38]

Reduce the blood glucose, serum lipids and cholesterol [49]

Improved mineral and vitamin absorption [10] [11][14] [49]

Improve immune function and immunological properties, immune modulation effects [38][45]

Anti-tumor effects [38]

Antioxidant effects [38]

Improve bowel function [45]

Anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activities [45]

Effective in the mucosal healing and resolution of colonic symptoms in ulcerative colitis (UC) and rapid recovery of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [47]

Reduced liver fat accumulation and mesenteric adipose tissue adipogenesis and lipogenesis, and metabolic dysregulation [50]

Reduced adiposity through decreasing gene expression of markers of adipogenesis and fat synthesis, decreases visceral fat [50]

References:

[1] Health Effects and Sources of Prebiotic Dietary Fiber; Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2018  https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzy005

[2] Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms, and Clinical Applications; Foods 2019, 8(3), 92; Probiotics and Functional Foods  https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8030092

[3] Neuroprotective Potential of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides: An Overview of Experimental Evidence, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 23 August 2021  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.712531

[4] Food Oligosaccharides. Production, Analysis and Bioactivity by F. Javier Moreno and María Luz Sanz, Preface; May 2014  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118817360.ch6

[5] Antioxidant Vitamins and Prebiotic FOS and XOS Differentially Shift Microbiota Composition and Function and Improve Intestinal Epithelial Barrier In Vitro; Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1125; Micronutrients and Human Health  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041125

[7] Short-chain fatty acids activate acetyltransferase p300; eLife 2021;10:e72171  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72171

[8] Impaired barrier function by dietary fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) in rats is accompanied by increased colonic mitochondrial gene expression, BMC Genomics Published online 2008 Mar 27  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-144

[9] Saad N, Delattre C, Urdaci M, Schmitter J M, Bressollier P. An overview of the last advances in probiotic and prebiotic field. LWT – Food Science and Technology. 2013;50:1-16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.05.014

[10] Charalampopoulos D, Rastall R A. Prebiotics in foods. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2012;23:187-191.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2011.12.028

[11] Sabater-Molina, M, Larqué, E, Torrella, F, Zamora, S. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistr, 2009;65:315-328.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03180584

[12] Lorenzoni, A S G, Aydos, L F, Klein, M P, Rodrigues, R C, Hertz, P F. Fructooligosaccharides synthesis by highly stable immobilized β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus aculeatus. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2014;103:193-197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.12.038

[13] Bruzzese, E, Volpicelli, M, Squeglia, V, Bruzzese, D, Salvini, F, Bisceglia, M, Lionetti,P, Cinquetti, M, Iacono, G, Amarri, S, Guarino, A. A formula containing galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents intestinal and extra-intestinal infections: An observational study. Clinical Nutrition. 2009;28:156-161.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2009.01.008

[14] Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health, M. Sabater-Molina, E. Larqué, F. Torrella & S. Zamora, Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry volume 65, pages 315–328 (2009)  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03180584

[37] Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study by Jieping Yang, Paula H. Summanen, Susanne M. Henning, Mark Hsu, Heiman Lam, Jianjun Huang, Chi-Hong Tseng, Scot E. Dowd, Sydney M. Finegold, David Heber and Zhaoping Li; 7, 07 August 2015 doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00216

[38] Xylo-Oligosaccharides, Preparation and Application to Human and Animal Health: A Review by Yuxia Chen, Yining Xie, Kolapo M. Ajuwon, Ruqing Zhong, Tao Li, Liang Chen, Hongfu Zhang, Yves Beckers2 and Nadia Everaert; Frontiers in Physiology, 08 September 2021 doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.731930

[39] Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects by Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Liang-Mao Chou, Yi-Wen Chien, Jung-Su Chang and Ching-I Lin, Academic Editor: Helieh Oz; Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Repair: Role of Microbiome, Infection, and Nutrition< Volume 2016, Article ID 5789232 doi.org/10.1155/2016/5789232

[40] Effect of probiotics and xylo-oligosaccharide supplementation on nutrient digestibility, intestinal health and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs by J B Liu, S C Cao, J Liu, Y N Xie, H F Zhang; Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) 2018; 31(10): 1660-1669. Published online: April 12, 2018 doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0908

[41] Antimicrobial activity of acidic xylo-oligosaccharides produced by family 10 and 11 endoxylanases by P Christakopoulos , P Katapodis, E Kalogeris, D Kekos, B J Macris, H Stamatis, H Skaltsa; International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 31, Issues 4–5, 15 January 2003, Pages 171-175. doi.org/10.1016/S0141-8130(02)00079-X

[42] Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) as an Emerging Prebiotic: Microbial Synthesis, Utilization, Structural Characterization, Bioactive Properties, and Applications by Ayyappan Appukuttan Aachary, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt Prapulla; Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Volume10, Issue1, January 2011, Pages 2-16 doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00135.x

[43] Dietary supplemental xylooligosaccharide modulates nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and gut microbiota in laying hens by Jianmin Zhou, Shugeng Wu, Guanghai Qi, Yu Fu, Weiwei Wang, Haijun Zhang, Jing Wang; Animal Nutrition Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2021, Pages 152-162 doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.05.010

[44] Xylo-oligosaccharides inhibit pathogen adhesion to enterocytes in vitro by Tine Ebersbach, Jens BoAndersen, AndersBergström, Robert W.Hutkins, Tine RaskLicht; Research in Microbiology, Volume 163, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 22-27 doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2011.10.003

[45] Xylo-oligosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials: chemical structure, health benefits and production by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis by Carvalho, A. F. A.,; Oliva Neto, P. de Silva; D. F. da Pastore G. M.; Food Research International 2013 Vol.51 No.1 pp.75-85 doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.11.021

[46] Prebiotic effect of xylooligosaccharides produced from birchwood xylan by a novel fungal GH11 xylanase by Manuel Nieto-Domínguez, Laura I. de Eugenio, María J. York-Durán, Barbara Rodríguez-Colinas, Francisco J. Plou, Empar Chenoll, Ester Pardo, Francisco Codoñer, María Jesús Martínez; Food Chemistry, Volume 232, 1 October 2017, Pages 105-113 doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.149

[47] A new treatment for ulcerative colitis: Intracolonic Bifidobacterium and xyloglucan application by Huseyin Sancar Bozkurt, Banu Kara; European Journal of Inflammation, Volume: 18, July 16, 2020 doi.org/10.1177/2058739220942626

[48] The High Level of Xylooligosaccharides Improves Growth Performance in Weaned Piglets by Increasing Antioxidant Activity, Enhancing Immune Function, and Modulating Gut Microbiota by Jiaman Pang, Xingjian Zhou, Hao Ye, Yujun Wu, Zhenyu Wang, Dongdong Lu, Junjun Wang1and Dandan Han; Frontiers in Physiology, 06 December 2021 doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.764556

[49] Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus by Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, I-Te Lee, Wei Chen, Yin-Ching Chan; Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo), 2008 Oct;54(5):396-401. doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.54.396

[50] Xylobiose Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Mice Obesity by Suppressing Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Metabolic Dysregulation by Soo-min Lim, Eunju Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo and Yuri Kim; Molecules. 2018 Mar; 23(3): 705. Published online 2018 Mar 20. doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030705

NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT USING THIS HERB