Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS)

Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS) are prebiotic fibers found in natural sources, however in insufficient concentration for all prebiotic effects [1][2]. NATVIE Healthcare uses Xylo-Oligosaccharides (XOS) in its products, produced by enzymatic biosynthesis of xylan from cornc ob, allowing a maximum concentration of at least 95%.

XOS are carbohydrates which are classified as non-digestible oligosaccharide (NDO) [3]. NDOs constitute one of the most important ingredients in foods, providing not only important nutritional value and organoleptic quality but also functional properties beneficial to human health and well-being [4].

XOS are not digested by human enzymes but fermented by the probiotics of the large intestine, selectively supporting the growth mostly of Lactobacillus и Bifidobacterium [5][37][38]. Additional positive effects are increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia muciniphila, and also decreasing pathogenic Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Bacteroides, Campylobacter и Actinomyces [38][39][40][41][42][43][44]. Fermentation of XOS results in multiple groups of metabolites (of which short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the major group), and mostly increased acetate, butyrate and propionate production [48]. SCFAs play a crucial role in human health [7].


Modulation of gastrointestinal microbiota, stimulation of probiotic growth [8][38]

Decreased intestinal pH [9][38]

Increase levels of SCFAs [9]

Inhibition of pathogens in the intestinal flora [10] [11] [12] [13][38]

Reduce the blood glucose, serum lipids and cholesterol [49]

Improved mineral and vitamin absorption [10] [11][14] [49]

Improve immune function and immunological properties, immune modulation effects [38][45]

Anti-tumor effects [38]

Antioxidant effects [38]

Improve bowel function [45]

Anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activities [45]

Effective in the mucosal healing and resolution of colonic symptoms in ulcerative colitis (UC) and rapid recovery of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [47]

Reduced liver fat accumulation and mesenteric adipose tissue adipogenesis and lipogenesis, and metabolic dysregulation [50]

Reduced adiposity through decreasing gene expression of markers of adipogenesis and fat synthesis, decreases visceral fat [50]


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[7] Short-chain fatty acids activate acetyltransferase p300; eLife 2021;10:e72171  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.72171

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[37] Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study by Jieping Yang, Paula H. Summanen, Susanne M. Henning, Mark Hsu, Heiman Lam, Jianjun Huang, Chi-Hong Tseng, Scot E. Dowd, Sydney M. Finegold, David Heber and Zhaoping Li; 7, 07 August 2015 doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00216

[38] Xylo-Oligosaccharides, Preparation and Application to Human and Animal Health: A Review by Yuxia Chen, Yining Xie, Kolapo M. Ajuwon, Ruqing Zhong, Tao Li, Liang Chen, Hongfu Zhang, Yves Beckers2 and Nadia Everaert; Frontiers in Physiology, 08 September 2021 doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.731930

[39] Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects by Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Liang-Mao Chou, Yi-Wen Chien, Jung-Su Chang and Ching-I Lin, Academic Editor: Helieh Oz; Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Repair: Role of Microbiome, Infection, and Nutrition< Volume 2016, Article ID 5789232 doi.org/10.1155/2016/5789232

[40] Effect of probiotics and xylo-oligosaccharide supplementation on nutrient digestibility, intestinal health and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs by J B Liu, S C Cao, J Liu, Y N Xie, H F Zhang; Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences (AJAS) 2018; 31(10): 1660-1669. Published online: April 12, 2018 doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0908

[41] Antimicrobial activity of acidic xylo-oligosaccharides produced by family 10 and 11 endoxylanases by P Christakopoulos , P Katapodis, E Kalogeris, D Kekos, B J Macris, H Stamatis, H Skaltsa; International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 31, Issues 4–5, 15 January 2003, Pages 171-175. doi.org/10.1016/S0141-8130(02)00079-X

[42] Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) as an Emerging Prebiotic: Microbial Synthesis, Utilization, Structural Characterization, Bioactive Properties, and Applications by Ayyappan Appukuttan Aachary, Siddalingaiya Gurudutt Prapulla; Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Volume10, Issue1, January 2011, Pages 2-16 doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00135.x

[43] Dietary supplemental xylooligosaccharide modulates nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, and gut microbiota in laying hens by Jianmin Zhou, Shugeng Wu, Guanghai Qi, Yu Fu, Weiwei Wang, Haijun Zhang, Jing Wang; Animal Nutrition Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2021, Pages 152-162 doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.05.010

[44] Xylo-oligosaccharides inhibit pathogen adhesion to enterocytes in vitro by Tine Ebersbach, Jens BoAndersen, AndersBergström, Robert W.Hutkins, Tine RaskLicht; Research in Microbiology, Volume 163, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 22-27 doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2011.10.003

[45] Xylo-oligosaccharides from lignocellulosic materials: chemical structure, health benefits and production by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis by Carvalho, A. F. A.,; Oliva Neto, P. de Silva; D. F. da Pastore G. M.; Food Research International 2013 Vol.51 No.1 pp.75-85 doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.11.021

[46] Prebiotic effect of xylooligosaccharides produced from birchwood xylan by a novel fungal GH11 xylanase by Manuel Nieto-Domínguez, Laura I. de Eugenio, María J. York-Durán, Barbara Rodríguez-Colinas, Francisco J. Plou, Empar Chenoll, Ester Pardo, Francisco Codoñer, María Jesús Martínez; Food Chemistry, Volume 232, 1 October 2017, Pages 105-113 doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.149

[47] A new treatment for ulcerative colitis: Intracolonic Bifidobacterium and xyloglucan application by Huseyin Sancar Bozkurt, Banu Kara; European Journal of Inflammation, Volume: 18, July 16, 2020 doi.org/10.1177/2058739220942626

[48] The High Level of Xylooligosaccharides Improves Growth Performance in Weaned Piglets by Increasing Antioxidant Activity, Enhancing Immune Function, and Modulating Gut Microbiota by Jiaman Pang, Xingjian Zhou, Hao Ye, Yujun Wu, Zhenyu Wang, Dongdong Lu, Junjun Wang1and Dandan Han; Frontiers in Physiology, 06 December 2021 doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.764556

[49] Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus by Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, I-Te Lee, Wei Chen, Yin-Ching Chan; Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo), 2008 Oct;54(5):396-401. doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.54.396

[50] Xylobiose Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Mice Obesity by Suppressing Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Metabolic Dysregulation by Soo-min Lim, Eunju Kim, Jae-Ho Shin, Pu Reum Seok, Sangwon Jung, Sang-Ho Yoo and Yuri Kim; Molecules. 2018 Mar; 23(3): 705. Published online 2018 Mar 20. doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030705